WAR AND THE WORKS OF J.R.R. TOLKIEN

 

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Janet Brennan Croft
ISBN: 0-313-32592-8
192 pages, hardcover
Praeger Publishers
Publication Date: 6/30/2004
 Series Title: Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy
 

WINNER OF THE 2005 MYTHOPOEIC SOCIETY AWARD FOR INKLINGS SCHOLARSHIP  

"Scholarly and perceptive...." Jon Barnes, Times Literary Supplement

"Lucidly argued ... Janet Croft understands Tolkien." David Bratman, Mythprint

"A comprehensive and successful effort ... to investigate the influence of the two World Wars on the work of J.R.R. Tolkien..." Thomas Fornet-Ponse, Inklings-Jahrbuch

"Clearly written and extensively researched, this informative book makes an important contribution to Tolkien studies. ... Highly recommended." B. Adler, CHOICE

"...a valuable introduction to the study of Tolkien and war. ... She has opened up a whole range of avenues for future research, and her own interpretations and conclusions will be the source of much lively debate for some time to come."  Shaun F.D. Hughes, Modern Fiction Studies

"...an ambitious book ... a welcome addition to the debate on the interface between Tolkien's art and the modern world..."   John Garth, Tolkien Studies

Having participated in the First World War, and having seen two of his sons serve in the Second, Tolkien was concerned with many of the same themes that interested other writers in the post-war period. The rhythm of war flows through his writings, but his own interpretation of the themes, symbols, and motifs of war were influenced by his religious views and his interest in fantasy, which add another layer of meaning and a sense of timelessness to his writing. This book explores the different aspects of Tolkien's relationship with war both in his life and in his work from the early Book of Lost Tales to his last story Smith of Wootten Major, and concentrates on his greatest and most well-known works The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. This timely addition to the critical literature on Tolkien sheds new light on the author's life and works.

Tolkien, one of the world's most beloved authors, was a World War I signaling officer who survived the Battle of the Somme, and two of his sons served during World War II. Such experiences and events led Tolkien to a complex attitude toward war and military leadership, the themes of which find their way into his most important writings. His fiction, criticism, and letters demonstrate a range of attitudes that would change over the course of his life. In the end, his philosophy on human nature and evil, and the inevitability of conflict, would appear to be pragmatic and rational, if regretful and pessimistic. Still, we are able to uncover a strain of hopefulness, as befitted his Catholicism, about the ultimate fate of the human soul. We can conclude that his personal life and values informed his reading and his writing and the way in which he interpreted his own experiences. This valuable consideration of war in the life of Tolkien is essential reading for all readers interested in deepening their understanding of this great writer.

 

4     Table of Contents and Outline

& Selected Bibliography

- Where to Order

_    Reviews

" Readings and Signings

 

4  Table of Contents and Outline

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION

a.      War and the Arts

b.      Why should we pay attention to what Tolkien has to say about war?

                                                              i.      Misunderstanding Tolkien

                                                            ii.      What Tolkien is Saying

c.      Scope

  Chapter 2. THE GREAT WAR AND TOLKIEN'S MEMORY

a.      Tolkien's War Experiences

b.      Influence of the War on Tolkien's Work

c.      Other Critics on Tolkien and World War I

d.      Mythologizing the War

 Chapter 3. World War I themes in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings

a.      The Pastoral Moment

b.      “Myth, Ritual, and Romance”

c.      The Sense of National Literature

d.      Demonization of the Enemy: “Fingers of the Hand of Morgoth”

e.      Underground: “The Troglodyte World”

f.        Homoeroticism and Vulnerability

 Chapter 4. World War II: "The Young Perish and the Old Linger, Withering"

a.      Tolkien as a Post-World War II Writer

b.      Characteristics of World War II Literature

c.      Tolkien's personal life as influence

 Chapter 5. MILITARY MATTERS

a.      The Morality of Personal Leadership

b.      Leaders in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings

                                                              i.      Bilbo

                                                            ii.      Frodo

                                                          iii.      Aragorn

                                                           iv.      Merry and Pippin

                                                             v.      Sam Gamgee

                                                           vi.      Gandalf

c.      Obedience and disobedience

d.      Leadership and the War of the Machines

      Chapter 6. "The Dull Backwaters of the Art of Killing"

a.      Training, tactics, strategy, and battlefield communication

b.      Analysis of Individual Battles

                                                              i.      The Defense of Laketown

                                                            ii.      Battle of Five Armies

                                                          iii.      Helm’s Deep

                                                           iv.      Battle of the Pelennor Fields

                                                             v.      Attack at the Gates of Mordor

                                                           vi.      Battle of Bywater

 Chapter 7. “War Must Be, While We Defend Our Lives”: Philosophy, Pathology, and Conclusions

a.      “Make sure of the mark, before shooting”: The war letters

b.      "The Scouring of the Shire" and pacifism

c.      "I am wounded, wounded; it will never really heal": shell shock and other psychological wounds

d.      Tolkien and Just War Doctrine:  "War must be, while we defend our lives"

e.      Conclusion: Tolkien's message

 APPENDIX A: A Chronology of J.R.R. Tolkien’s World War I Experiences

APPENDIX B: A Chronology of J.R.R. Tolkien’s Family’s World War II Experiences

 

 

& Selected Bibliography

  World War I

 General works:

Adams, Michael C.C. The Great Adventure: Male Desire and the Coming of World War I. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1990.

Davis, Richard Harding. "The German Army Marches through Brussels, 21 August 1914." Eyewitness to History. Ed. John Carey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1987. 445-48.

Duffy, Michael. First World War.Com. 2002. Available: http://www.firstworldwar.com/index.htm. 18 April 2002.

Eksteins, Modris. "Memory and the Great War." The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War. Ed. Hew Strachan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. 305-17.

Englander, David. "Mutinies and Military Morale." The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War. Ed. Hew Strachan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. 191-203.

Higham, Robin. "The Selection, Education, and Training of British Officers, 1740-1920." The East Central European Officer Corps 1740-1920s: Social Origins, Selection, Education, and Training. Eds. Béla K. Király and Walter Scott Dillard. War and Society in East Central Europe, Vol. Xxiv. Boulder: Social Science Monographs, 1987.

Keegan, John. The First World War. New York: Alfred E. Knopf, 1999.

---. An Illustrated History of the First World War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.

Parker, Peter. The Old Lie: The Great War and the Public-School Ethos. London: Constable, 1987.

Prior, Robin, and Trevor Wilson. "Eastern Front and Western Front, 1916-1917." The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War. Ed. Hew Strachan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. 179-90.

Strachan, Hew. The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War. New York: Oxford UP, 2000.

Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim. The Guns of August. 1st Ballantine Books ed. New York: Ballantine, 1994.

---. The Zimmermann Telegram. 1st Ballantine Books trade ed. New York: Ballantine, 1985.

Williamson, Samuel R., Jr. "The Origins of the War." The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War. Ed. Hew Strachan. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. 9-25.

Young, Arthur P. Books for Sammies: The American Library Association and World War I. Beta Phi Mu Chapbooks, No. 15. Pittsburgh: Beta Phi Mu, 1981.

 

Regimental Histories and Biographies:

Ashurst, George. My Bit: A Lancashire Fusilier at War, 1914-1918. Ed. Richard Holmes. Ramsbury, Eng.: Crowood Press, 1987.

The Lancashire Fusiliers. n.d. Available: http://memorabilia.homestead.com/files/Wm_MAKINSON_LFs.html. 1 April 2002.

Latter, John Cecil. The History of the Lancashire Fusiliers, 1914-1918. 2 vols. Aldershot, Eng.: Gale and Polden, 1949.

 

Military Manuals:

Atkinson, J. ABC of the Army: An Illustrated Guide to Military Knowledge for Those Who Seek a General Acquaintance with Elementary Matters Pertaining to the British Army. London: Gale & Polden, 1914.

Barnes, John B. Military Sketching and Map Reading. 4th rev. ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1918.

Camps, Billets, Cooking: Sanitation, Organization, Routine, Guard Duties, Inspections, Ceremonial, Bivouacs. Ed. E. John Solano. American ed. New York: George U. Harvey, 1917.

Grieves, Loren C. Military Sketching and Map Reading. 3rd, rev. and enl. ed. Washington,  DC: United States Infantry Association, 1917.

Instructions for the Training of Platoons for Offensive Action, 1917. London: Great Britain War Office, 1917.

"The Major". When I Join the Ranks: What to Do and How to Do It. London: Gale & Polden, 1916.

McLaglen, Leopold. Bayonet Fighting for War. London: Harrison and Sons, 1916.

Signalling: Morse, Semaphore, Station Work, Despatch Riding, Telephone Cables, Map Reading. Imperial Army Series; Based on Official Manuals. Ed. E. John Solano. London: John Murray, 1914.

Stuart, Edwin R. Map Reading and Topographical Sketching. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1918.

Training Manual -- Signalling. Vol. II. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1914.

Wyndham, Horace. Soldiers on Service: A Manual of Practical Information for Members of the Expeditionary Force. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1915.

 

World War II

Dear, I. C. B., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Second World War. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995.

Fraser, George MacDonald. Quartered Safe out Here: A Recollection of the War in Burma. London: HarperCollins, 1995.

Polsson, Ken. Chronology of World War II. 2002. Available: http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/ww2hist/. 10 June 2002.

 

 War and Literature

 Criticism:

Bergonzi, Bernard. Heroes' Twilight: A Study of the Literature of the Great War. 1965. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1980.

Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. 25th anniversary ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2000 (1975).

---. Wartime : Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

Hauptman, Robert. War, Literature & the Arts: An International Journal of the Humanities. n.d. U.S. Air Force Academy. Available: http://www.usafa.af.mil/dfeng/wla/. 15 October 2002.

Knowles, Sebastian D.G. A Purgatorial Flame: Seven British Writers in the Second World War. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1990.

Mattox, John Mark. "Henry V: Shakespeare's Just Warrior." War, Literature & the Arts 12.1 (2000): 30-53. Available: http://www.usafa.af.mil/dfeng/wla/12-1/current.html.

Veldman, Meredith. Fantasy, the Bomb, and the Greening of Britain: Romantic Protest, 1945-1980. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994.

 

Examples:

Blunden, Edmund. "Report on Experience." The Penguin Book of First World War Poetry. Ed. Jon Silkin. London: Penguin, 1979. 113-4.

---. "Rural Economy." Undertones of War. London: Collins, 1965 (1928). 225.

Brooke, Rupert. "Peace." The Works of Rupert Brooke : With an Introduction and Bibliography. The Wordsworth Poetry Library. Ware: Wordsworth, 1994. 144.

Graves, Robert. Good-Bye to All That. New , rev. ed. New York: Anchor Books Doubleday, 1998.

Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1927 (1957).

Jones, David Michael. In Parenthesis: Seinnyessit E Gledyf Ym Penn Mameu. Compass Books ed. New York: Viking, 1963.

Larkin, Philip. "MCMXIV." Collected Poems. London: Marvell Press, 1988. 128.

Munro, H.H. 'Saki'. "Birds on the Western Front, 1916." Eyewitness to History. Ed. John Carey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1987. 469-72.

Owen, Wilfred. "Preface." The Collected Poems of Wilfred Owen. Ed. C. Day Lewis. London: Chatto and Windus, 1966. 31.

Sassoon, Siegfried. "Glory of Women." Collected Poems. New York: Viking, 1949. 79.

---. "Litany of the Lost." Collected Poems. New York: Viking, 1949. 205-6.

---. Memoirs of an Infantry Officer. New York: Coward, McCann, 1930.

---. "Suicide in Trenches." Collected Poems. New York: Viking, 1949. 78.

 

War in General

General works:

Arendt, Hannah. On Violence. London: Allen Lane, 1970.

Bourke, Joanna. An Intimate History of Killing: Face-to-Face Killing in Twentieth-Century Warfare. New York: Basic, 1999.

Hanson, Victor Davis. An Autumn of War: What America Learned from September 11 and the War on Terrorism. New York: Anchor, 2002.

---. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power. New York: Doubleday, 2001.

Keegan, John. The Book of War. New York: Viking, 1999.

---. The Mask of Command. New York: Penguin, 1988.

---. The Nature of War. New York: Holt Rinehart Winston, 1981.

Ridgway, Matthew B. "Leadership." Military Leadership: In Pursuit of Excellence. (Originally published in Military Review, 46:10 (October 1966), 40-49.). Eds. Robert L. Taylor and William E. Rosenbach. 4th ed. Boulder: Westview, 2000. 6-15.

Simons, Lewis M. "Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Geographic November 2002: 2-35.

Stokesbury, James L. "Leadership as an Art." Military Leadership: In Pursuit of Excellence. (Originally published in Military Leadership, ed. James H. Buck and Lawrence J. Korb, Sage Publications, 1981, p.23-40.). Eds. Robert L. Taylor and William E. Rosenbach. 4th ed. Boulder: Westview, 2000. 141-56.

Sun-tzu. Sun-Tzu: The New Translation. Trans. J. H. Huang. New York: William Morrow, 1993.

 

Shell shock, combat stress, battle fatigue, PTSD:

Babington, Anthony. Shell-Shock: A History of the Changing Attitudes to War Neurosis. London: Leo Cooper, 1997.

Binneveld, Hans. From Shell Shock to Combat Stress: A Comparative History of Military Psychiatry. Trans. John O'Kane. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UP, 1997.

Bourke, Joanna. "Effeminacy, Ethnicity and the End of Trauma: The Sufferings of 'Shell-Shocked' Men in Great Britain and Ireland, 1914-39." Journal of Contemporary History 35.1 (2000): 57-69.

Leed, Eric. "Fateful Memories: Industrialized War and Traumatic Neuroses." Journal of Contemporary History 35.1 (2000): 85-100.

Leese, Peter. Shell Shock: Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

MacCurdy, John T. War Neuroses. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1918.

May, Carl. "Lord Moran's Memoir: Shell-Shock and the Pathology of Fear." Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 91.2 (1998): 95-100.

Moran, Charles. The Anatomy of Courage. First American ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967 (1945).

"Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed., text revision ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. 463-68.

Valent, Paul. "Survivor Guilt." Encyclopedia of Stress. Ed. George Fink. Vol. 3. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000. 555-57.

 

Just War:

Coates, A. J. The Ethics of War. Manchester, Eng.: Manchester UP, 1997.

Fotion, N., and G. Elfstrom. Military Ethics: Guidelines for Peace and War. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.

Johnson, James Turner. Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War: A Moral and Historical Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1981.

Phillips, Robert L. War and Justice. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1984.

Teichman, Jenny. Pacifism and the Just War: A Study in Applied Philosophy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

 

 Tolkien Criticism and Biography

Primarily Biographical:

Armstrong, Helen. "It Bore Me Away: Tolkien as Horseman." Mallorn 30 (1993): 29-31.

Carpenter, Humphrey. The Inklings: C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, and Their Friends. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.

---. Tolkien : A Biography. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.

Gilchrist, K. James. "2nd Lieutenant Lewis." Seven: An Anglo-American Literary Review 17 (2000): 61-78.

---. "Continuing Research on 2nd Lieutenant Lewis." Seven: An Anglo-American Literary Review 18 (2001): 47-50. (both now included in his book  A Morning After War.)

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull. J.R.R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995.

Lewis, C.S. Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1955.

Norman, Philip. "The Prevalence of Hobbits." 2001 (1967). Interview. New York Times. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/1967/01/15/books/tolkien-interview.html. 1 July 2002.

Ryan, John S. The Shaping of Middle-earth's Maker: Influences on the Life and Literature of J.R.R. Tolkien. Highland, MI: American Tolkien Society, 1992.

Tolkien, John, and Priscilla Tolkien. The Tolkien Family Album. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

Tolkien, Priscilla. "J.R.R. Tolkien and Edith Tolkien's Stay in Staffordshire 1916, 1917, and 1918." Angerthas 34 (1992): 4-5.

  

Primarily critical:

Bell, David. "The Battle of Pelennor Fields: An Impossible Victory?" Mallorn 19 (1982): 25-28.

Black, Kevin Roger. "Where the Shadows Lie: The Battle against Modernity in J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings." Senior thesis. Princeton, 1995.

Brogan, Hugh. "Tolkien's Great War." Children and Their Books: A Celebration of the Work of Iona and Peter Opie. Eds. Gillian Avery and Julia Briggs. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989. 351-67.

Burger, Douglas A. "The Shire: A Tolkien Version of the Pastoral." Aspects of Fantasy: Selected Essays from the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and Film. Ed. William Coyle. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy, No. 19. Westport: Greenwood, 1986. 149-54.

Clark, George. "J.R.R. Tolkien and the True Hero." J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Eds. George Clark and Daniel Timmons. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy, No.89. Westport: Greenwood, 2000. 39-51.

Colebatch, Hal. Return of the Heroes: The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars, and Contemporary Culture. Critical Issues No. 13. Perth: Australian Institute for Public Policy, 1990.(Newer edition now available includes Harry Potter.)

Craig, David M. "Queer Lodgings: Gender and Sexuality in The Lord of the Rings." Mallorn 38 (2001): 11-18.

Drout, Michael D. C., and Hilary Wynne. "Tom Shippey's J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century and a Look Back at Tolkien Criticism since 1982." Envoi 9.2 (2000). Available: http://members.aol.com/JamesIMcNelis/9_2/Drout_9_2.pdf.

Ellison, John. "'The Legendary War and the Real One': The Lord of the Rings and the Climate of Its Times." Mallorn 26 (1989): 17-20.

Flieger, Verlyn. A Question of Time: J.R.R. Tolkien's Road to Faërie. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1997.

Fonstad, Karen Wynn. The Atlas of Middle-earth. rev. ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991.

Friedman, Barton. "Tolkien and David Jones: The Great War and the War of the Ring." Clio 11.2 (1982): 115-36.

Green, William H. The Hobbit: A Journey into Maturity. Twayne's Masterwork Studies. Ed. Robert Lecker. Vol. 149. New York: Twayne, 1995.

Grossman, Lev. "Feeding on Fantasy." Time December 2 2002: 90-94.

Hammond, Wayne G. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Descriptive Bibliography. Winchester, Eng.: St. Paul's Bibliographies, 1993.

Helms, Philip W. "The Gentle Scouring of the Shire: Civilian-Based Defense among the Hobbits." Tolkien's Peaceful War: A History and Explanation of Tolkien Fandom and War. Minas Tirith Evening-Star 1986. Eds. Philip W. Helms, Kerry Elizabeth Thompson and Paul Ritz. rev. ed. Highland, MI: American Tolkien Society, 1994.

Kocher, Paul H. Master of Middle-earth: The Fiction of J.R.R Tolkien. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.

Leonard, Bruce. "The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder of Frodo Baggins." Mythcon XXVII. Boulder, CO: (unpublished), 1996.

Lewis, Alex. "Arma virumque cano: Of Wars Real and Imaginary." Amon Hen 138 (1996): 10-11.

---. "The Lost Heart of the Little Kingdom." Leaves from the Tree: J.R.R. Tolkien's Shorter Fiction. Ed. Thomas A. Shippey. London: Tolkien Society, 1991. 33-44.

Lewis, C.S. "The Dethronement of Power." A Reader's Companion to The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. New York: Quality Paperback Book Club, 1995. 37-42.

Lloyd, Paul M. "The Role of Warfare and Strategy in The Lord of the Rings." Mythlore 3.3 (1976): 3-7.

Nelson, Charles W. "The Sins of Middle-earth: Tolkien's Use of Medieval Allegory." J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances. Eds. George Clark and Daniel Timmons. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy, No.89. Westport: Greenwood, 2000. 83-94.

"Of Hobbits, War and Bush." Rev. of The Lord of the Rings, dir. Peter Jackson. Commonweal 11 January 2002: 5.

Partridge, Brenda. "No Sex Please -- We're Hobbits: The Construction of Female Sexuality in The Lord of the Rings." J.R.R. Tolkien: This Far Land. Ed. Robert Giddings. London: Vision, 1983. 179-97.

Petty, Anne C. One Ring to Bind Them All : Tolkien's Mythology. University: U of Alabama P, 1979.

Ready, William. The Tolkien Relation. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1968.

Rosebury, Brian. Tolkien: A Critical Assessment. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.

Sale, Roger. Modern Heroism: Essays on D.H. Lawrence, William Empson, and J.R.R. Tolkien. Berkeley: U of California P, 1973.

Scott, Nan C. "War and Pacifism in The Lord of the Rings." Tolkien Journal 15 (1972): 23-25, 27-30.

Senior, W.A. "Loss Eternal in J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-earth." J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances: Views of Middle-earth. Eds. George Clark and Daniel Timmons. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy, No.89. Westport: Greenwood, 2000. 173-82.

Shippey, Thomas A. J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

---. "Orcs, Wraiths, Wights: Tolkien's Images of Evil." J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances. Eds. George Clark and Daniel Timmons. Vol. 89. Contributions to the Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy. Westport: Greenwood, 2000.

---. The Road to Middle-earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983.

---. "Tolkien as a Post-War Writer." Proceedings of the J.R.R. Tolkien Centenary Conference, 1992. Eds. Patricia Reynolds and Glen H. GoodKnight. Altadena: Milton Keynes Tolkien Society, 1992. 84-93.

Spencer, Andrew, and Brandon Soule. "Not to Strike without Need: Evaluation of the Dichotomy of J.R.R. Tolkien's Views on War." Concerning Hobbits and Other Matters: Tolkien Across the Disciplines. Ed. Tim Schindler. St. Paul: U of St. Thomas, 2001. 61-5.

Timmons, Daniel. "Mirror on Middle-earth: J.R.R Tolkien and the Critical Perspectives." Doctor of Philosophy. U of Toronto, 1998.

---. "'We Few, We Happy Few...': War and Glory in Henry V and The Lord of the Rings." Tolkien and Shakespeare: Essays on Shared Themes and Language. Ed. Janet Croft. McFarland, 2007. 81-90.

Wilson, Edmund. "Oo, Those Awful Orcs!" A Reader's Companion to The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. New York: Quality Paperback Book Club, 1995. 55-64.

  

General Works

 Literary Criticism:

Auden, W.H. "Balaam and His Ass." The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays. New York: Random House, 1962. 107-45.

---. "Reading." The Dyer's Hand and Other Essays. New York: Random House, 1962. 3-12.

Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism : Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957.

Goldthwaite, John. The Natural History of Make-Believe: A Guide to the Principal Works of Britain, Europe, and America. New York: Oxford UP, 1996.

LeGuin, Ursula K. "Escape Routes." The Language of the Night. 1974. Ed. Susan Wood. New York: Berkley, 1979. 193-98.

---. "From Elfland to Poughkeepsie." The Language of the Night. 1973. Ed. Susan Wood. New York: Berkley, 1979. 73-86.

 

History:

Harvey, P.D.A. The History of Topographical Maps: Symbols, Pictures and Surveys. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

---. Medieval Maps. Toronto: U of Toronto, 1991.

Tarn, W. W. Alexander the Great. Boston: Bacon, 1956.

 

Sociology:

Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free Press, 1994.

Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: William Morrow, 1990.

 

New and Forthcoming (published after War and the Works of J.R.R. Tolkien was completed)

 Dickerson, Matthew. Following Gandalf. Grand Rapids MI: Brazos Press, 2003.

Frederick, Candace and Sam McBride. Battling the Woman Warrior: Females and Combat in Tolkien and Lewis. Mythlore 25.3/4 (#97/98) (2007): 29-42.

Garth, John. Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-Earth. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.

---. "Frodo and the Great War." The Lord of the Rings: Scholarship in Honor of Richard E. Blackwelder. Ed. Wayne Hammond and Christina Scull. Milwaukee: Marquette, 2006. 41-56.

Gilchrist, K. James. A Morning After War: C.S. Lewis and WWI. New York: P. Lang, 2005.

Hammond, Wayne G. and Christina Scull.  The J.R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide.  2 vols.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007.

---. The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.

Hooker, Mark T. "Frodo's Batman." Tolkien Studies 1 (2004): 125-136.

Livingston, Michael. "The Shell-shocked Hobbit: The First World War and Tolkien's Trauma of the Ring." Mythlore 95/96 (Fall/Winter 2006): 77-92.

Rosman, Adam. "Gandalf as Torturer: The Ticking Bomb Terrorist and Due Process in The Lord of the Rings."  Mallorn 42 (2005): 38-42.

Smith, Melissa. “At Home and Abroad: Éowyn’s Two-fold Figuring as War Bride in The Lord of the Rings.” Mythlore 26.1/2 (#99/100)( 2007): 161-172.

Treschow, Michael and Mark Duckworth. "Bombadil's Role in The Lord of the Rings." Mythlore 95/96 (Fall/Winter 2006): 175-196.

 

  

- Where to Order

Greenwood Press

Amazon.com (also Amazon.ca, Amazon.co.uk, Amazon.fr, Amazon.co.jp, Amazon.de)

Barnes and Noble

Borders

The Cheapest Book

 

 

_  Reviews

Reference and Research Book News, 1 August 2004:

"Librarian Croft (U. of Oklahoma) explores British Medievalist and fantasy writer Tolkien's symbiosis of action and reflection concerning war by examining his biography and the depiction of war in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. He lived through both world wars, and though he does not discuss his experience directly, she cannot but believe that it had an effect on his imagination. She considers World War I themes, military leaders and leadership; training, tactics, strategy, and battlefield communications; and philosophy and pathology." Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).  (From Books in Print database)

Jon Barnes, Times Literary Supplement, 29 October 2004, p.30:

"In her scholarly and perceptive War and the Works of J.R.R. Tolkien Janet Brennan Croft asks the troubling question of why, after all the horrors he had endured as a young officer, Tolkien should still choose to frame his stories in the language of epic heroism. "

David Bratman, Mythprint, February 2005, p.10 :

"This book is a thorough survey ... goes far beyond crude A-Bomb parallels or noticing that the Dead Marshes look like the fields of Flanders. ... lucidly argued ... A study of Tolkien must begin with a scholar who understands his work, and Janet Croft understands Tolkien."

Thomas Fornet-Ponse, Inklings-Jahrbuch 22 (2004), 261-264

"War and the Works of J. R. R. Tolkien presents a comprehensive and successful effort by Janet Croft to investigate the influence of the two World Wars on the work of J. R. R. Tolkien as well as his attitudes to war. She indicates in the introduction how little meaning the wars have been attributed until now in the investigation of Tolkien’s work and how Tolkien has been understood by different interpreters as simply a pacifist or as an advocate for war. Against this a differentiated view is advisable, which she presents in her work. ... One should not fail to mention her productive commentaries on the changes of the filming by Peter Jackson in some of the scenes and themes she deals with, for example the strong self-doubt of Aragorn or the faulty clarity of Frodo’s development toward pacifism." (My thanks to Dan Snell of the OU History Department for the translation.)

 

B. Adler, CHOICE, January 2005, p.851:

 

“[C]roft demonstrates that to lodge Tolkien's writings squarely in the genre of war literature is to overlook the complexity and ambiguity in his depictions of the epic struggle between good and evil....Croft makes a convincing case for Tolkien's complex and highly inconsistent perspectives on war. Close readings, a comparison with Jackson's films, biographical background, and studies of working drafts bolster Croft's conclusions....Clearly written and extensively researched, this informative book makes an important contribution to Tolkien studies. Highly recommended. Lower-division undergraduates through faculty; general readers.”
 

Shaun D.F. Hughes, Modern Fiction Studies 50:4 (2004) 980-1014:

"Croft's study is a valuable introduction to the study of Tolkien and war. As she says, "Understanding Tolkien's approach to war is crucial to fully understanding his works, particularly The Lord of the Rings, as a whole" (145). She has opened up a whole range of avenues for future research, and her own interpretations and conclusions will be the source of much lively debate for some time to come. "

John Garth, Tolkien Studies 3 (2006) 234-238:

"Croft is often at her best when she ... observes the broader ramifications of war experience in Tolkien's works: the "shell shock" trauma of Frodo and the chronic reappearance of displaced refugees and people, for example. ... skillfully marshals the expertise of a considerable number of writers from beyond Tolkienian scholarship ... Also of great interest is her comparison of Denethor and Saruman to the "chateau generals" who conducted the Great War in comfort from miles behind the front ... At its best ... a welcome addition to the debate on the interface between Tolkien's art and the modern world, enlarging our view of his war experiences, and reminding us that therein lies a major factor in his contemporary appeal. Her most salient point cannot be sufficiently emphasized: that The Lord of the Rings, and indeed Tolkien's entire legendarium, was the equivalent of the "talking cure" that the more progressive psychologists used to help soldiers recover from war trauma."

 

 

" Readings and Signings

·         J.R.R. Tolkien Institute: National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, Commerce TX, July 26, 2004

·         Borders Reception at Mythcon35, Ann Arbor MI, July 30, 2004

·         Mornings with the Professor, University of Oklahoma, April 25, 2006

·         OU Bookstore Reception at Mythcon37, Norman OK, August 4, 2006

·         English 4013:Major Figures: J.R.R. Tolkien, The Road to Middle-earth, Guest lecture, October 25, 2006

·         University of New Mexico Hobbit Society, February 2007

 

Available for readings and lectures

 

 

Last updated June 6, 2008 JBC