STOMP DANCE: CREEK/SEMINOLE GREEN CORN CEREMONIES
This research looks at contemporary stomp dancing as it occurs in Oklahoma, and compares these dances with historical accounts of the stomp dance, both in Oklahoma and in the Southeastern part of the United States where it originated.

The focus is on Conlon’s work with Linda Alexander of the Creek/Seminole tribe, a respected elder who still participates at numerous stomp dances in the Oklahoma area, and has traveled to Florida to participate in stomp dances there. Now in her nineties, Alexander has lived through many changes, but still attends Green Corn ceremonies and stomp dances that have a similar structure to the dances that she participated in as she was growing up. Alexander can be considered a “bearer of culture,” both for her own tribal group and for the Native American and non-Native American members of the community that she lives in. This research discusses Linda Alexander and the Talahvse Ceremonial Grounds' contribution to the preservation of stomp dancing into the twenty-first century.

Photo: Linda Alexander (1917-2009), Creek-Seminole shell shaker.


REFERENCES

Densmore, Frances, Seminole Music,  United States Government Printing Office, c. 1956
Fairbanks, Charles H., The Florida Seminole People, Phoenix, AZ: Indian Tribal Series, 1973, Library of Congress Catalog Number 73-887997
Foreman, Grant, The Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934, ISBN 0-8061-0923-8
Green, Rayna, "Cherokee Stomp Dance: Laughter Rises Up," in Charlotte Heth, ed., Native American Dance: Ceremonies and Social Traditions, Washington, D.C.: National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, 1993:177, ISBN 1-56373-021-9
Heth, Charlotte, The Stomp Dance of the Oklahoma Cherokee: A study of contemporary practice with special reference to the Illinois District Council Ground, Ph.D. diss, UCLA, 1975
Howard, James H. in collaboration with Willie Lena, Oklahoma Seminoles: Medicines, Magic, & Religion, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984, ISBN 0-8061-2238-2
Innes, Pamela, Linda Alexander and Bertha Tilkens, Beginning Creek: Mvskoke Emponvkv, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8061-3583-2
Jackson, Jason Baird and Victoria Lindsay Levine, "Singing for Garfish: Music and Woodland Communities in Eastern Oklahma," in Ethnomusicology 46(2):284-306, Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, Spring/Summer 2002, ISSN 0014-1836
Laubin, Reginald and Gladys, "The Green corn Dance," in Indian Danes of North America: Their Importance to Indian Life, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977
Martin, Jack B. and Margaret McKane Mauldin, A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8032-3207-1
McCoy, George, as told to H.F. Fulling, The True Meaning of Stomp Dance, History of the Stomp Dance of the Sacred Fire of the Cherokee Indian Nations, c. 1961
Milligan, Dorothy, The How Book of Being Indian, Burnet, Texas: Eaken Press
Moore-Willson, Minnie, The Seminoles of Florida, New York: Moffat, Yard & Co., 1920
Sizemore, Donald, Cherokee Dance: Ceremonial Dances and Dance Regalia, Cherokee, NC: Cherokee Publications, 1999, ISBN 0-935741-21-6
White Deer, Gary, "Pretty Shellshaker," in Remaining Ourselves: Music and Tribal Memory, Oklahoma City, OK: State Arts Council of Oklahoma, 1995
Wright, Muriel, A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma, Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1951, ISBN 0-8061-2041-x

Stomp Dance Songs of the Muscogee Nation, CD Vol.. 1, IH 3009, Taos, NM: Indian House, 2000
Stomp Dance Songs of the Muscogee Nation, CD Vol.. 2, IH 3010, Taos, NM: Indian House, 2000